The activation date of Berlin Hard Fork was given at block height 12,244,000 or April 14th after an Ethereum All Developers meeting on February 19th.
Ethereum is building from Istanbul to Berlin
Ethereum currently operates two independent chains: Proof-of-Work and Proof-of-Stake.
The Berlin Hard Fork marks the end of the Metropolis era. It’s a pivotal stage in Ethereum’s history that is executed in two stages – Byzantine and Constantinople – that span multiple forks, including Atlantis, Istanbul, which eventually culminate in Berlin.
The Berlin hard fork
In particular, the upgrade sets the ball rolling for the ultimate transition from the inefficiencies, but the security of the proof-of-work, to a staking network during Eth 1.5.
The outcome of yesterday’s decision, however, is against the background of delays and fears of a harmful hard fork.
This upgrade was planned for June 2020. However, it was observed that most of the node operations relied on the geth client.
Therefore, fragility could be devastating and destroy the network. Accordingly, the developers are focusing on caution instead of speed and are now postponing the upgrade to April 14th.
Nevertheless, at least four attempts are made prior to deployment before activation. As James Hancock, the Ethereum Hard Forks coordinator, pointed out in January, the Berlin Hard Fork sends out five Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs).
Draft for the Berlin Network Upgrade / Hardfork Specification. 👇👇👇https://t.co/JHamdR9tTp
Follow here for canonical information about the upcoming Ethereum upgrade. Includes all included EIPs and a readiness checklist. 🎉
Looking for Feedback!
— James Hancock 🏗 (@JHancock) January 19, 2021
In preparation, James also posted a checklist to see if each EIP was merged with existing clients: Geth, Besu, Nethermind, and OpenEthereum.
Some of the changes introduced by these EIPs include an update to how code is interpreted by the heart of Smart Contracting (EVM). Others are improvements for better gas efficiency and better protection of the Ethereum network against Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks.
EIP-1559 is being reviewed
Meanwhile, EIP-1559 is currently under review as an immediate tool to combat skyrocketing gas prices, according to GitHub.
The proposal is part of an intervention to tame rapidly rising gas tariffs by overhauling the current primary auction system. It introduces a BASIC FEE in the ETH (which is destroyed) and a miner’s tip.
The successful mining pool will earn block rewards. If implemented, however, the proposal will lead to more predictability in the gas sector, as the end user will be in charge of setting gas charges.
As BTCManager reports, Ethereum developers are working on the Eth2 Phase 0 Beacon Chain. The parallel chain now holds over $ 6.2 billion in staked funds.
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